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Diagnosing Diabetes in Adults

The diagnosis of diabetes is frequently missed or overlooked; clinicians should be vigilant in evaluating clinical presentations suggestive of diabetes. Test all patients with overt symptoms, non specific symptomatology, glycosuria, recurrent infections including uro-genital candidiasis, urine and skin infection.

Annual re-testing of those with IFG, IGT or previous GDM is essential.

Whole population screening for diabetes is NOT recommended. Active case finding is encouraged.

Maintain a high index of suspicion in people with combinations of the following:

  • Age >40 years

  • Overweight (BMI 25 kg/m2*)

  • Family history of diabetes (i.e., parents or siblings with diabetes)

  • Hypertension

  • Hyperlipidaemia

  • History of vascular disease

Clinical Presentation

Symptoms of diabetes
Hyperglycaemic emergency


Diagnostic criteria
First step (FBG +/- HbA1c)
Second Step (Repeat FBG or

Glycaemia categorisation

Classification of Diabetes
Impaired Fasting Glucose

For diagnosing diabetes in pregnancy- please refer to the ‘Pregnancy section’